The Role of Prenatal Counseling in Preventing Congenital CMV

Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common non-genetic cause of birth defects and the leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Shockingly, 91% of women have never heard of cCMV, despite its prevalence (Doutre et. al, 2016).

There is a substantial amount of evidence that pregnant women can reduce their risk of transmission through simple behavioral changes. These behavioral changes include hygiene precautions such as kissing a child on the forehead instead of the lips, not sharing utensils, food, or drink with young children, and handwashing after diapering. Despite this, the American College of Gynecology and Obstetrics (ACOG) describes hygiene recommendations as “impractical or burdensome” and says that “patient education remains an unproven method to reduce the incidence of CMV infection” (Demmler-Harrison, 2016).

“Let the Woman and her Family Decide”

Based on well-documented evidence and over 30 years of experience, infectious disease doctor and CMV expert Dr. Gail Demmler-Harrison respectfully disagrees. In a recent interview she did for a podcast (The Hou to Guide) Dr. Demmler-Harrison was quoted saying, “I think it’s a rather paternalistic view. I say, let the woman and her family decide for themselves. Give them the available information, and let them be CMV-aware. She was also quoted saying “they (ACOG) don’t want to unduly alarm pregnant women about the potential risk. But I can tell you, that when I see families[…] and they’re holding their little baby, that’s four weeks old, and they say, ‘Why did those of you who came before me not warn me? I wish I had known about CMV, and have the choice to make that decision,’ it’s heart-breaking. It brings me to tears. And all I can say is, “I don’t know. I’ve been trying for over thirty years to educate pregnant women about CMV.” (The Hou to Guide: Interview with Dr. Gail Demmler-Harrison).

The Research: 

An article published in October 2020 in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal analyzed all published studies on the effectiveness of “preventative hygiene-based interventions in pregnancy” to reduce the incidence of CMV infection (Barber et. al., 2020). Here are some of the key findings from this study:

  • Preventative measures are accepted by pregnant women and there was no increase in psychological distress.
  • Preventative measures can impact pregnant women’s behavior and reduce CMV in pregnancy.
  • An effective intervention is needed as part of routine prenatal care to change behavior and reduce the risk of CMV infection during pregnancy.

An Italian study found a stark difference in the incidence of CMV infection in women who had received prenatal education and those who did not (Revello, 2015). Women in the intervention group received hygiene counseling at 12 weeks gestation which included verbal, written, and visual information. Findings showed that 7.5% of women who did not receive hygiene counseling acquired a primary CMV infection, in comparison to only 1.2% of women who did receive counseling. 93% of participants in the study felt that the recommendations were worth advising to all at-risk women.

A French study that was conducted on a larger scale, had similar findings (Valloup-Fellous, 2009). This study compared the incidence of maternal CMV infection before 12 weeks gestation with no hygiene counseling versus after 12 weeks of gestation with hygiene counseling. Findings showed that 0.42% of women who did not receive prenatal counseling acquired a primary CMV infection during pregnancy, as opposed to only 0.19% of women who received counseling on prevention.

Finally, two small studies performed in the United States found that, with hygiene counseling, pregnant women were significantly less likely to acquire a primary CMV infection than were women who were trying to conceive. (Adler et al., 1996, 2004)

Current Practice:

Currently, nine states require the education of both the public and medical professionals about CMV. They are Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Utah. Tennessee also requires the education of women of childbearing age (National CMV Foundation, 2020).

It is time that Massachusetts joins the ranks of the states requiring prenatal education about CMV. 1 in 200 children are born with cCMV (CDC), which means hundreds of Massachusetts babies are born every year with the virus. Unfortunately, my son was one of them in 2017, and he lost his life after 4 months in the NICU. Every time I share my story, women simply cannot believe that they have never heard of a virus so common. Women deserve to know that CMV exists and to be able to make the decision to follow hygiene precautions if they so choose.

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Adler SP, Finney JW, Manganello AM, Best AM. Prevention of child-to-mother transmission of cytomegalovirus by changing behaviors: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Mar;15(3):240-6. doi: 10.1097/00006454-199603000-00013. PMID: 8852913.
Adler SP, Finney JW, Manganello AM, Best AM. Prevention of child-to-mother transmission of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women. J Pediatr. 2004 Oct;145(4):485-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.05.041. PMID: 15480372.
Barber V, Calvert A, Vandrevala T, Star C, Khalil A, Griffiths P, Heath PT, Jones CE. Prevention of Acquisition of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnancy Through Hygiene-based Behavioral Interventions: A Systematic Review and Gap Analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Oct;39(10):949-954. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002763. PMID: 32502127.
CMV Fact Sheet for Women and Parents
Demmler-Harrison. Cytomegalovirus: The Virus All Pregnant Women Should Know About Now. Medscape. 2016. Retrieved from
Doutre, S. M. Barrett, T. S. Greenlee, J. & White, K. R. (2016). Losing Ground: Awareness of Congenital Cytomegalovirus in the United States. Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention, 1(2), 39-48. DOI: 10.15142/T32G62
The Hou to Guide: Interview with Dr. Gail Demmler-Harrison
National CMV Foundation: Advocacy
Revello MG, Tibaldi C, Masuelli G, Frisina V, Sacchi A, Furione M, Arossa A, Spinillo A, Klersy C, Ceccarelli M, Gerna G, Todros T; CCPE Study Group. Prevention of Primary Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnancy. EBioMedicine. 2015 Aug 6;2(9):1205-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.08.003. PMID: 26501119; PMCID: PMC4588434.
Vauloup-Fellous C, Picone O, Cordier AG, Parent-du-Châtelet I, Senat MV, Frydman R, Grangeot-Keros L. Does hygiene counseling have an impact on the rate of CMV primary infection during pregnancy? Results of a 3-year prospective study in a French hospital. J Clin Virol. 2009 Dec;46 Suppl 4:S49-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2009.09.003. Epub 2009 Oct 6. PMID: 19811947.

You Get CMV From Those You Love the Most

Imagine this: You are pregnant and your seemingly healthy toddler leans in for a sloppy, open-mouthed kiss on the lips…what would you do? You find this quite adorable and harmless, so you kiss them back! But what if you knew that in that adorable child’s saliva potentially lived a virus that could harm your unborn baby? 

For those just tuning in, cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of 8 strains of herpesviruses that can infect humans, not to be confused with genital herpes. It is extremely common and the leading infectious cause of congenital disabilities in the United States and the world. 

Quick facts about the herpesvirus family: Once you have had them, they live in your body for life and periods of “reactivation” are standard (Colugnati, 2007). They are most often transmitted through direct contact with bodily fluids (Kaye, 2019).

How is CMV transmitted?

Source: (CDC, 2020) (Brown, 2019)

Which pregnant women are at the greatest risk of contracting CMV?:

  1. Pregnant women with young children in the home.
  • In developed countries like the United States, CMV is usually transmitted after “frequent and prolonged contact with children (less than three years of age)”(Manicklal, 2013). 
  • Young children who acquire CMV infection may shed the virus into their bodily fluids for a year or more (Cannon et al., 2011). 
  1. Pregnant with young children who attend daycare.
  • Those with children in daycare are at a higher risk of contracting CMV; the percentage of children ages 1 to 3 years old with the virus in their urine and saliva ranges between 30-40% in childcare centers, but can be as high as 70% (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015).
  1. Pregnant women who work in early childcare.
  • 8% – 20% of childcare staff are infected with CMV each year (Adler, 2015). 

What are activities that can increase the risk of congenital CMV?

  • Kissing a child on the lips.
  • Sharing food, drinks, & utensils.
  • Putting a child’s pacifier in your mouth.
  • Handling toys that may have been in children’s mouths.
  • Wiping a child’s nose or mouth.
  • Changing a diaper.
  • Not washing your hands before putting hands to your mouth (i.e., for eating, smoking, nail-biting) (Brown, 2019).
  • Having unprotected sex, especially with a new partner (Cannon et al., 2011).

How Long Can CMV Live On Surfaces?

Brown, 2019

If I have already had CMV, is my unborn child immune to congenital CMV?

The short answer? No, but it is less likely. Here are the odds that a pregnant mother with an active CMV infection will pass it along to her baby, according to the CDC:

  • Primary infection (first time): 
    •  30 to 40% in the first and second trimesters
    •  40 to 70% in the third trimester
  • Non-primary infection (not the first time): 
    • Around 3% 
    • These are women whose strain of CMV has been reactivated or in women who are reinfected with a different CMV strain.

Source: (CDC, 2020)

Should I follow these guidelines if my child does not appear sick?

YES. The majority of healthy individuals who get CMV do NOT display ANY symptoms, including children who acquire CMV outside of the womb and pregnant women. Possible mild symptoms include fever, sore throat, fatigue, and swollen glands. Occasionally, CMV can cause mononucleosis (“mono”), which is usually caused by a different strain of herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr (CDC, 2020). 

I wish I knew

When I was pregnant with my second son, I already had a one-year-old named Sam. I had no idea that kissing him on the lips or sharing a drink or fork with him could put my unborn child at risk. I believe I was a good hand-washer, but had I known his saliva and urine potentially carried a dangerous virus, I would have been more thorough and consistent about handwashing. My second child, Logan, was born via c-section at 27 weeks, weighing only 1.2 pounds and very sick with congenital CMV. The only reason he was even born alive was that I had a minor fall that brought me into the doctor for monitoring. The fall did not hurt him, but it was clear that something was very wrong. I couldn’t believe it when I learned he had cytomegalovirus. I do not remember being sick. I do not remember Sam being sick. Logan never left the hospital, passing away at four months old. 

I chose to follow these prevention guidelines while pregnant with my third son, Julian. I thought not kissing Sam on the lips would be difficult, but it wasn’t. Sam adjusted quickly to being kissed on the forehead, and he felt no less loved or nurtured. It was not hard to make sure he had his own fork, spoon, and drinking glass. I was more vigilant about washing my hands. Julian was born full-term and healthy, for which I am so thankful. It is impossible to say whether or not Logan would also be here, happy and healthy, had I known these simple recommendations. Unfortunately, I will never know.

Adler S. P. Prevention of Maternal-Fetal Transmission of Cytomegalovirus. EBioMedicine. 2015, 2(9): 1027–1028. 
American Academy of Pediatrics. [Children in Out of Home Childcare.] In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS, eds. Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 30th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2015: [144]. Retrieved from
Brown, N. J. (2019). Occupational exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV): Preventing exposure in child care and educational settings, including OSHA advisories. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, ILR School, Workplace Health and Safety Program. 
Cannon MJ, Hyde TB, Schmid DS. Review of cytomegalovirus shedding in bodily fluids and relevance to congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Rev Med Virol. 2011; 21(4): 240-255. 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Cytomegalovirus and Congenital CMV Infection. Retrieved from on 8/23/20.
Colugnati, F., Staras, S., Dollard, S., & Cannon, M. Incidence of Cytomegalovirus Infection Among the General Population and Pregnant Women in the United States. BMC Infect Dis. 2007, 7(71).
Kaye, K (2019). Overview of Herpesvirus Infections. Retrieved from: on 8/23/20.
Manicklal, S. Emery, V., Lazzarotto, T., Boppana S., Gupta, R., The “Silent” Global Burden of Congenital Cytomegalovirus. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2013, 26(1): 86-102.
Vauloup-Fellous, C., Picone, O., Cordier, A. G., Parent-du-Châtelet, I., Senat, M. V., Frydman, R., & Grangeot-Keros, L. Does hygiene counseling have an impact on the rate of CMV primary infection during pregnancy? Results of a 3-year prospective study in a French hospital. Journal of clinical virology. 2009, 46 (4), 49–53.

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CMV: The Most Common Virus You Never Heard About

When I was pregnant with my son Logan, my obstetrician advised me not to attend a close friend’s wedding in St. Lucia due to the Zika virus outbreak. Of course, I listened- I wouldn’t do anything that would put my unborn child in any danger. Ironically, my child was still infected with a virus that caused him to be born three months early and to lose his life four months later to an infection that can cause very similar congenital disabilities, including microcephaly. I didn’t have to travel to another country to get this virus; it’s here in the United States and all over the world. Not once had I ever heard of it. This virus was, of course, cytomegalovirus (CMV). 

You may be wondering to yourself, “How common can CMV be if I am just learning about it?” The statistics below may surprise you.

In the United States

  • 50-80% of the U.S. population has had a CMV infection by 40 years old (CDC, 2020). 
  • Nearly 1 in 3 children are infected by age 5 (CDC, 2020), putting pregnant women who have young children in the home or workplace at higher risk for contracting CMV.
  • The prevalence of CMV infection is higher among non-Hispanic Blacks and Mexican Americans, as well as among those of low-income households (Colugnati et al., 2007). 

Around the world

  • CMV prevalence ranges significantly around the world, with prevalence in women of reproductive age ranging between 45-100% (Cannon et al., 2010).
  • The prevalence of CMV is higher in developing countries and “resource-poor” communities in industrialized countries, due to crowded living conditions (Manicklal et al., 2013). 
  • The prevalence of CMV among people of color tends to be 20–30 percentage points higher than that of Caucasians (Cannon et al., 2010). 
  • CMV prevalence is highest in South America, Africa, and Asia and lowest in Western Europe and the United States (Cannon et al., 2010).

The Connection Between CMV and Congenital CMV

Congenital CMV is when a baby is born with a CMV infection, which they acquired while in utero. The higher the prevalence of CMV in a particular area, the higher the prevalence of congenital CMV. In developing countries, congenital CMV infection affects as many as 1-5% of births (Manicklal et al., 2013). In the United States, 1 in 200 babies are born with congenital CMV, and 1 in 5 of these children will go on to have long-term health problems, including hearing loss, visual impairment, and intellectual disability (CDC, 2020).

Why is awareness of CMV so low?

CMV is described as a “silent” virus for many reasons (Manicklal et al., 2013). First, people with CMV infections often don’t have any symptoms, including pregnant mothers. Only 10% of newborns with CMV have symptoms at birth; of the 90% of infected newborns that don’t have symptoms, 10-15% of them develop symptoms months or even years later (Colugnati et al., 2007). If a baby is not tested for congenital CMV within their first three weeks of life, this diagnosis cannot be made, leaving those with delayed symptoms without answers. 


In Summary

Traveling to another country is not the only time to worry about contracting a virus that could affect your unborn child. CMV is the LEADING cause of congenital infections here in the United States, as well as around the world (Manicklal et al., 2013). It causes more severe disabilities in children than many more well-known conditions, including fetal alcohol syndrome and the Zika virus (Colugnati et al., 2007; Schleiss, 2018). Furthermore, you may be at a higher risk of contracting CMV, depending on the population of your community and whether or not you are in frequent contact with young children. Fortunately, there are ways to lower your risk for contracting CMV during pregnancy, and we can all make a massive difference by empowering ourselves with this life-changing knowledge. 

In the next couple of weeks, we will be wrapping up our first topic, “What is CMV?,” by looking more deeply at how CMV is transmitted and what are its signs and symptoms. If you are learning a lot and want to keep receiving these posts, please consider subscribing below! 

Follow the MCC Blog:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Cytomegalovirus and Congenital CMV Infection. Retrieved from on 8/16/20.
Cannon, M. Schmid S., & Hyde T. Review of Cytomegalovirus Seroprevalence and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Infection. Rev Med Virol 2010; 20:202. 
Colugnati, F., Staras, S., Dollard, S., & Cannon, M. Incidence of Cytomegalovirus Infection Among the General Population and Pregnant Women in the United States. BMC Infectious Diseases 2007, 7:71.
Demmler-Harrison, G. (2020), Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Clinical features and diagnosis. Retrieved from Up to Date on 8/17/20.
Manicklal, S. Emery, V., Lazzarotto, T., Boppana S., Gupta, R., The “Silent” Global Burden of Congenital Cytomegalovirus. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2013, 26;1.
Schleiss, M. Congenital Cytomegalovirus: Impact on Child Health. Contemporary Pediatrics 2018, 35; 7.

CMV is a Herpes Virus but it isn’t what You’re Thinking…

What is CMV?

Cyto-megalo-what?! If you are reading this post, you probably already know that CMV is the name of a virus. For those of you hearing about it for the first time, here’s what you need to know: 

  • CMV stands for cytomegalovirus. 
  • It is extremely common.
  • It’s the #1 infectious cause of birth defects in the nation and most women have never heard about it (Doutre, et. al, 2016).
  • It is a type of herpesvirus. 

Wait, I have Herpes? (It’s not what you’re thinking…)

If you were just diagnosed with a CMV infection, your first response might be- I DON’T have herpes!!! The herpesvirus STD, which causes genital blisters or lesions, is actually one of 130 herpesviruses strains, 8 of which are known to infect humans (Ada, 2019). And you are likely to have had more than one of them…

The Herpesvirus Family:

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1): Have you ever had a cold sore? Well, then you have had HSV-1, as have about 48% of individuals in the U.S. who are between the ages of 14-49 (Infectious Disease Advisor, 2018). 
  1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2): This is the sexually transmitted strain that causes genital blisters or lesions. About 12% of people in the U.S. between the ages of 14-49 carry this virus (Infectious Disease Advisor, 2018). 
Note: Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes is rare (10/100,000 births globally), but can cause neurologic disability or death (World Health Organization, 2020). Neonatal herpes is NOT the same thing as CMV.
  1. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV): This strain causes chickenpox, a common childhood disease. When it is reactivated in adults later in life, it causes shingles (Ada, 2019). 
  1.  Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV): 90% of the world’s population carries this virus and its symptoms are mostly mild. If infected as an adolescent or in early adulthood, one can develop infectious mononucleosis or what is commonly known as “mono” (Ada, 2019).
  1. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): CMV is a very common virus that over half of adults are infected with by age 40 (CDC, 2020). It is often harmless to healthy people- many are even asymptomatic- but it can be very serious when contracted during pregnancy or for people with compromised immune systems. 
  1. Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6): A common strain that most people get by age 3. It is often harmless but can cause the common childhood condition called Roseola Infantum. It is most harmful to people with weakened immune systems (Ada, 2019).
  1. Human Herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7): Another common strain often acquired in childhood that is often harmless, but can also reactivate in people with weakened immune systems (Ada, 2019).
  1. Human Herpesvirus 8: Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV): Kaposi’s Sarcoma is a much less common strain of the herpes virus, affecting less than 5% of the U.S. population (Ada, 2019). 

In Summary…

Well, there you have it. CMV is 1 of 8 human herpesviruses. And it is NOT the same as having genital herpes, nor is it the same as the dangerous, but rare, neonatal herpes. CMV is very common among the general public and serious for babies infected in the womb and for those who have weakened immune systems. Over the next few weeks, we will continue to explore more about CMV, such as its level of incidence in different populations, how it is transmitted, and signs of infection. After that, we will dive into other topics, including congenital CMV and its effects on babies, prevention, and treatment. Thank you for reading and stay tuned!

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Ada’s Medical Knowledge Team. (2019). Human Herpesvirus (HHV). Retrieved from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). CMV; Clinical Features for Healthcare Providers. Retrieved from
Doutre S., et. al. (2016). Losing Ground: Awareness of Congenital Cytomegalovirus in the United States. Retrieved from
Infectious Disease Advisor. (2018). CDC Reports on Latest Estimates of HSV-1, HSV-2 Prevalence in the United States. Retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2020). Herpes Simplex Virus. Retrieved from